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Resistance and Liberation During the Holocaust

Updated: Mar 28

By Rabbi Pamela Frydman

(This article is based on a Keynote Address given at Montana State University, in Bozeman, Montana on April 22, 2012 when she was serving as Director of the Holocaust Education Project of the Academy for Jewish Religion, California.)

 © Copyrighted by Pamela Frydman. All rights reserved.

The Holocaust began in January 1933, when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.[[1] “Adolf Hitler is Named Chancellor of Germany,” <>1] Within a month, the building that housed the German Parliament burned down and the fire was falsely attributed to a Communist effort to overthrow the German government.[2] Hitler used the propaganda from the fire to persuade German President Paul von Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree authorizing Hitler to suspend civil rights and arrest and execute suspicious persons.[3]

Within weeks, the Nazis opened the Dachau Concentration Camp which operated until 1945. Numerous other camps were opened that proved temporary and were eventually put to other uses. In 1936, they opened the concentration camps at Sachsenhausen, in 1937, they opened Buchenwald, and in 1938, they opened Mathausen and Flossenburg The Ravensbruck Concentration Camp designed specifically for women.

From Hitler’s rise to power in 1933 until the end of World War II in 1945, the Nazis used the German legislature and judicial system, together with executive powers and military might to perpetrate poverty, harassment, torture, starvation and death in the most dehumanizing ways imaginable. The victims of the Holocaust included Jews, Roma and Sinti—who were previously called Gypsies—Serbian Orthodox, Seventh Day Adventists, Polish Catholics, political dissidents, gays and lesbians, the disabled, the mentally retarded and the poor.

Already in 1933, the German legislature passed a law allowing German authorities to deport beggars, homeless people, alcoholics and the unemployed to concentrations camps. In 1933 Jews lost their right to own land in Germany. In 1934 German Jews lost their health insurance and in 1935 the public sale of Jewish newspapers was banned and the German Parliament passed the Nuremburg Laws that redefined German Jews as non-citizens and banned Jews from participating in politics.[4]

From 1935 to 1938 German Jews continued to lose more and more of their rights. Then, in the fall of 1938, Jewish suffering took a dark and downward turn. Herschel Feibel Grynszpan, a seventeen year old from Hannover, Germany was living in Paris with his aunt and uncle when he received a devastating postcard from his sister. Herschel’s parents, brother and sister had been ruthlessly removed from their home in Hannover. Together with thousands of others Jews, they were transported in boxcars to the Polish German border where they were abandoned with no food, no shelter and no place to go.

Herschel felt enraged and helpless in the face of his family’s suffering. He purchased a pistol, and on November 7, 1938, he went to the German Embassy in Paris and shot the German Third Secretary Ernst vom Rath in cold blood.

In response to the shooting, Adolf Hitler and his Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels called upon Germans to "rise in bloody vengeance against the Jews." Mob violence broke out all over Germany. German police and crowds of civilian spectators stood by and watched as Nazi storm troopers, members of the SS and Hitler Youth vandalized Jewish homes, beat Jewish men and brutalized Jewish women and children. All over Germany, Jewish businesses had their windows smashed and contents destroyed. Synagogues were vandalized, including the desecration of sacred Torah scrolls. Local fire departments stood by as synagogues burned. Some firefighters worked to allow fires to burn in Jewish venues while preventing these fires from spreading to surrounding buildings.

The night of November 9, 1938 and the following day is known as Kristallnacht, the “night of (shattered) glass.” By the end of Kristallnacht, the Germans had destroyed 7,000 Jewish businesses, set fire to more than 900 synagogues, killed 91 Jews and deported 30,000 Jewish men to concentration camp.[5]

Ted Alexander, was a teenager on Kristallnacht. Ted’s father was the rabbi of a synagogue in Berlin and also a shopkeeper. On Kristallnacht, Ted and his father went into hiding to avoid being arrested. Three weeks later, they came out of hiding and while walking down a Berlin street, they ran into a friend of Ted’s father who happened to be the Chief of Police for that particular District in Berlin.

“I have been looking for you!” exclaimed the Chief of Police, “Where have you been?”

“Under the circumstances,” said Ted’s father, “I cannot tell you.”

The Police Chief leaned close to Ted’s father and said softly, “Who do you think boarded up the windows on your store and the other stores on your block?”

Ted and his father headed straight for the family business. Their storefront was indeed boarded up and their windows were not broken. All the merchandise was still in their store, and when Ted and his father opened the cash register, every Deutsch Mark that Ted’s father remembered leaving in the till was still there.

Ted and his parents left Germany as soon as they could. They boarded a ship and made their way to Shanghai in China. When the Japanese created the Shanghai Ghetto, Ted and his family lived in the Ghetto and helped to provide Jewish activities for Ghetto residents, including worship services, lectures, discussions and other forms of Jewish learning. Before Kristallnacht, Ted had been studying for the rabbinate in Germany. While in Shanghai, Ted continued his studies and was ordained as a rabbi in the Asia Seminary.

Ted engaged in an act of resistance by studying for the rabbinate during the Holocaust. Ted and his father engaged in acts of resistance by teaching and leading worship in the Shanghai Ghetto. And in Berlin, the District Police Chief also engaged in resistance when he had the windows boarded up on Ted’s father’s shop and the other Jewish businesses on the block.

Resistance was an act of courage by many other leaders, and ordinary citizens, including people of many faiths and backgrounds in Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Holland, Hungary, Morocco, Romania and many other countries.

Countless Jewish parents engaged in resistance by dropping off their children into the care of Catholics who risked their own lives to hide and provide for their young Jewish charges. In Belgium alone, 800 Jewish children were saved by being hidden and educated in Catholic convent schools from 1939 to 1945.

Resistance was so prevalent among Catholic clergy that the Nazis designed special torture for Catholic priests and nuns who were caught saving Jews.

In 1939, Germany invaded Czechoslovakia. In every Jewish community, the Nazis appointed a Judenrat. A Judenrat was a council of Jewish community leaders who were forced by the Nazis to help carry out their mandate at risk of torture to their owns families. With Europe teetering on the brink of war, the government of Denmark agreed to take in two hundred Jewish children from Czechoslovakia. The Germans forced the Judenrat in Prague to select the two hundred Jewish children from among thousands upon thousands of Jewish children in Prague and the surrounding areas. Wringing their hands, and with impending danger to their own children, the leaders of the Prague Judenrat decided to run a lottery.

Chana Dubova was a young teenager who grew up in Prague. Chana’s father was a doctor and the family lived comfortably. Chana loved sports, but even before the German invasion, Jewish children were not allowed to join public sports teams in Czechoslovakia. So Chana played sports with Maccabee, which was part of the Jewish Zionist youth movement.

Chana also loved learning, but after the Nazi invasion, all Jewish children and teenagers in Czechoslovakia were expelled from school for being Jewish.

Chana was one of the two hundred Jewish children to win the Judenrat lottery. She hugged and kissed her parents and her brother Peter, and she was soon on her way to Denmark. One of the saddest day’s of Chana’s life was when she received the last letter from her brother Peter who was four years younger. “I thought I would be bar mitzvah,” Peter wrote, “but it doesn’t look that way. That was the only thing I wanted to live for, my Bar Mitzvah.” The tone of Peter’s letter worried Chana, and shortly after, she received a letter from her parents. “This is the last letter,” they wrote. “We have been selected.” Chana’s parents and brother were taken to Auschwitz.[6]

The Nazis invaded Denmark in April 1940. The Danish King Christian X encouraged his subjects to resist the Nazi occupation and save the Jews of Denmark. As a symbol of courage and resistance, King Christian rode his horse through the streets of Copenhagen every morning alone, unarmed and without an escort.

During the Nazis occupation, Danes looked out for the Jewish young people they had taken in from Czechoslovakia. One day, strangers came to the school where Chana Dubova was working as a cleaning lady. The strangers told Chana that she had to leave. They took her by the hand and led her to a boat. The boat was filled with Jews, including the Chief Rabbi of Denmark Marcus Melchior. The boat got lost at sea due to bad weather and poor visibility, but the boat’s captain finally found his way and delivered his passengers to Sweden.

On the one hand, Swedish officials allowed the Nazis to travel through Sweden in order to enter Norway and Russia from the north.[7] On the other hand, Sweden provided a variety of aid to its Nordic neighbors, including the taking in and hiding of 900 Jews from Norway and 8,000 Jews from Denmark.[8]

The six million Jews who died in the Holocaust constituted one-third of the world’s Jewish population. But among these six million who died were eighty to ninety percent of the world’s Jewish spiritual leaders. Spiritual leaders of all faiths have a commitment to their calling, and those whom they are called to serve, and that commitment transcends their connection with the material world and personal happiness. In an ongoing act of resistance, many Jewish rabbis, scholars and theologians chose to stay with their communities and those who depended upon them, during the Holocaust. Many Jewish spiritual leaders were offered travel documents and escape routes, but they insisted that their communities needed them, and in the end, they died with those whom they had been called to serve.

In 1935, Rabbi Max Dienemann, head of the Liberal Rabbis’ Association of Offenbach, Germany ordained Regina Jonas as the world’s first woman rabbi.[9] Four days later, Rabbi Leo Baeck, President of the rabbinic association for all of Germany[10] wrote to Regina to congratulate her, and in 1942, he signed a certificate confirming Regina’s ordination.

At the time of her ordination, Rabbi Regina taught religious studies and Hebrew to Jewish students in German public high schools. On Kristallnacht, Jewish students were expelled from all German schools. After Kristallnacht, when male rabbis from liberal synagogues were arrested and taken to concentration camp, Rabbi Regina filled in for them in their synagogues. In November 1942, she was deported to the Terezin concentration camp.

Working together with the famous psychologist, Viktor Frankl, Rabbi Regina took on the task of meeting the transports at the railway station and helping new concentration camp inmates to deal with their initial shock and disorientation. In October 1944, Rabbi Regina was transported to Auschwitz where she was murdered.[11]

In March 1943, at the age seventy, Rabbi Leo Baeck, head of the rabbinic association of Germany, was arrested and interned at the Terezin Concentration Camp because of his interventions on behalf of German Jews.[12] He too, used his rabbinic skills to help other concentration camp inmates.

Last year, I had the privilege of giving the keynote at the Holocaust Memorial in Burbank, California. That is where I met an Iranian Jew named Mousa Hakkakah. When Mousa was a teenager, he helped his uncle to rescue Jews who were smuggled into Iran from the Soviet Union. Mousa went with his uncle to the local cemetery. The cemetery was filled with naked refugees. Who drops off refugees naked, you might want to ask?

We believe that these refugees were concentration camp survivors because of the numbers tattooed on the inside of their forearms. And we believe that the smugglers confiscated the refugee’s striped pajama-like concentration camp uniforms in order to not create suspicion among the Iranian authorities. The refugees did not have underwear, because the Nazis confiscated the underwear of all concentration camp prisoners.

Mousa and his uncle brought food to the refugees in the cemetery. His uncle purchased bolts of fabric, took the fabric to a tailor and had suits of clothing made for the refugees. Mousa’s uncle then led the refugees to the main street in the Jewish neighborhood of Tehran. One their suits, the refugees wore a black ribbon on the lapel. These black ribbons identified the refugees to Iranian Jews who came by, picked them and took them into their homes. From 1942 to 1945, the Iranian Jewish community housed and supported 80,000 refugees of the Holocaust.

Where death is the norm, survival is the greatest resistance of all. Every Holocaust victim who went into hiding was engaged in an act of resistance. Holocaust survivors hid in almost every country where the Holocaust was perpetrated, as well as in countries that were not directly involved in the war.

The Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Five days later, German troops rolled into the Polish village of Chmielnik.[13] There were two Jewish community centers in Chmielnik that served the town’s Jewish population of ten thousand. The Nazis rounded up Chmielnik’s rabbis, cantors and other Jewish leaders, including the President of the Jewish community. They forced the Jewish leaders into one of the community centers. They closed the doors, poured gasoline around the perimeter and set the center ablaze. German troops forced Jews, at gunpoint, to stand and watch as their civic and spiritual leaders were burned alive, together with their community center, their sacred Torah scrolls, prayer books and libraries.

My Uncle and Aunt Getzel and Chaya Frydman lived in the Chmielnik Ghetto. Getzel had gone to yeshiva, Jewish seminary and he was very knowledgeable about Jewish life and practice. Getzel was an advisor to one of the community center rabbis, and on the festival of Purim, Getzel used to chant the Book of Esther at a public celebration. After the burning of the community centers and the murder of its leaders, Getzel and Chaya took their own lives into their hands by opening their home in the ghetto for community worship. They had no prayer books and no Torah—because those were burned in the fires—but people gathered and prayed from memory and from the heart and with their tears.

In the fall of 1942, the Nazis picked up Getzel on a street. They began pushing and harassing him and they took him to an abandoned building to finish the job. Getzel’s children—all five of them—were on the street walking a little behind him as children and teenagers often do. When they saw their father being harassed, they followed without getting too close.

Getzel’s children arrived at the abandoned building. They looked around and saw a wooden board on the ground. They propped up the board and stood on it. Then they peered through the tiny holes between the wooden slats and watched, as the Nazis beat their father within inches of death. When Getzel stopped moving, the Nazis stopped beating him. They left him on the dirt floor and walked out.

Getzel’s children scrambled down from their perch on the wooden board and made their way into the building. Getzel had passed out, but he was still breathing. They revived him and carried him home. Together with their mother, they nursed his wounds with cold water, which was all they had. A few weeks later, the Nazis began the liquidation of the Chmielnik Ghetto. It was Succot, the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles and this was no accident. The Nazis singled out Jewish holidays for actions and liquidations.

The night before the liquidation of the Chmielnik Ghetto, Uncle Getzel took his children down into the cellar of their home. Still suffering from the wounds he had incurred during his beating, Getzel dug a hole in the dirt floor. He placed in the hole the family’s Sabbath candlesticks and other valuables. “Tomorrow will be a day of judgment,” Getzel said to his children. “Whoever will survive will come back to Chmielnik and dig up these things.”

In 1941, Adolf Hitler authorized the action that came to be known as the Final Solution. The Final Solution was code for the systematic and deliberate annihilation of all the Jews of Europe. In January 1942, fifteen high-ranking officials of the German government and the Nazi Party met in Wannsee, Germany, a Suburb of Berlin. During their meetings, the officials coordinated the plans for the implementation of the Final Solution.[14]

Part of that implementation was the creation of death camps, which operated from the summer of 1942 through the fall of 1943. The operation of these death camps were in addition to the concentrations camps where people of all backgrounds were already being imprisoned, forced to work, tortured and murdered.

One of the new Death Camps was at Treblinka in Poland. The Treblinka Death Camp operated from July 1942 to November 1943. During those sixteen months, it is believed that the Nazis murdered between 800,000 and 900,000 Jews in addition to 50,000 others in that one camp.[15]  The only evidence to substantiate these number were testimonies of Nazi SS-men who had been stationed at the camp, and a few Jewish survivors who were willing to tell their stories. In the face of the lack of evidence, Holocaust deniers have insisted that Treblinka was only a transit point for prisoners on their way to concentration camp.

Just this year, in 2012, forensic archaeologists have uncovered previously hidden mass graves at the site of the Treblinka Death Camp. [16] The excavation of these mass graves in 2012 are an ongoing step in the ongoing resistance against the claims of Holocaust deniers, which continue to this day.

In August 1943, there was an uprising in Treblinka. Prisoners planned to take weapons from the camp armory and use the weapons to take over the camp. They did manage to seize the weapons, but they were caught before the takeover, so instead, they tried to escape. The escapees were attacked by machine gun fire as they stormed the front gate of the camp. Many were killed, but three hundred escaped. Of those 300 who did escape, approximately 200 were tracked down and killed by German SS, and police and military units.[17] In November 1943, three months after the uprising, the Germans dismantled the Treblinka Death Camp.

At the site of the Treblinka Camp, there is a simple stone monument to Janusz Korczak. Janusz Korczak is a pseudonym for Dr. Henryk Goldzmit. Dr. Goldzmit was a teacher and a social worker. He ran an orphanage in Warsaw, had a weekly radio program for children, and wrote a series of children's books that featured a boy king named King Matt. In July 1942, Dr. Goldzmit was offered an opportunity to escape the squalor of the Warsaw Ghetto, but he turned it to down in order to remain in the ghetto with his orphans.[18]

The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in Poland. In 1939, there were 337,000 Jews living in the ghetto, and by 1941, the ghetto’s population had swelled to 445,000.[19] Between July and September 1942, there was a mass removal of residents from the Warsaw Ghetto. Over 23,000 residents were murdered in or near the ghetto. 11,580 ghetto residents were deported to forced-labor camps. And 265,000 ghetto residents were deported to the Treblinka Death Camp, including Dr. Goldzmit and his one hundred and ninety-two orphans.

According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C., Dr. Goldzmit marched with his one hundred and ninety two orphans to the Umschlagplatz, the gathering point for deportation, in the Warsaw Ghetto. One of the orphan children carried a flag. On one side of the flag was a portrait of King Matt from Dr. Goldzmit’s children’s books. And on the other side was the Zionist flag.[20]

When the Warsaw Ghetto murders and deportations began, Warsaw Ghetto residents organized several Jewish underground organizations for the purpose of developing self-defense. They obtained a few weapons from the Polish military underground movement,[21] including pistols and explosives, and they used the weapons to wreck havoc during later deportations.

In January 1943, the Nazis suspended deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto because of the Jewish resistance fighters. Encouraged by this success, Warsaw Ghetto residents began to construct subterranean bunkers and shelters in preparation for an uprising.

German forces scheduled the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto for April 19, 1943. It was the eve of Passover. When SS and police units entered the ghetto, the streets were deserted. Nearly all ghetto residents had gone into bunkers or hiding places. Armed with homemade and professionally made grenades, pistols, rifles and a few automatic weapons, the resistance fighters confronted the Germans forces and their auxiliaries, and forced them to retreat to areas outside the ghetto wall. SS General Jürgen Stroop reported losing twelve men, who were killed or wounded during the assault.

On the third day of the uprising, General Stroop's SS and police forces began burning the ghetto to the ground building by building in order to force the remaining Jews out of hiding. Jewish resistance fighters made sporadic raids from their bunkers while the Germans systematically reduced the ghetto to rubble.

Mordecai Anielewicz was the commander of a Jewish Combat Organization known by the initials ZOB. On May 8, 1943, the Germans captured the ZOB command bunker and killed Mordecai and those who were with him. The resistance effort of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising had lasted for almost a month. [22]

There was also an uprising at the Sobibor Death Camp in Poland. The Sobibor Death Camp was operated from May 1942 to October 1943 as part of the Final Solution. In October 1943, Leon Feldhendler led the rebellion, assisted by Alexander Pechersky. Eleven SS men and a number of Ukrainian guards were killed and three hundred Jews managed to escape. The prisoners who stayed behind were executed the next day, and the camp was closed.

Of the 300 Jews who escaped from the Sobibor Death Camp, most were hunted down and killed. Approximately 50 of the Sobibor escapees survived with the help of Partisans and Polish civilians.[23]

The Partisans were guerilla fighters who operated behind enemy lines. Hundreds of thousands of Partisans of various nationalities and faiths hid in the forests of Europe and fought against the Germans.

British and American forces provided support to Partisan units in Belgium, France and Greece, and the Soviet Union provided support for the Partisans in almost all of the countries of Eastern Europe. In Poland, Lithuania, the Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviets airdropped food and other supplies, as well as weapons, currency and radio equipment to help the Partisans. The Soviets also airdropped officers and radio operators to help the Partisans organize.[24]

Although the Partisans fought against the Germans, many Partisans were anti-Semitic. Jewish Partisans who lived and fought in non-Jewish Partisan units had to hide their identity in order to survive and help the cause.

For this reason, some Jews organized their own Partisan units. Jewish Partisan units sprung up in Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.[25] The Jewish Partisan units took in refugees who were fleeing the atrocities of the ghettos, forced labor camps and concentration camps. The Jewish Partisans created makeshift shelters as temporary forest homes and they fought the Nazis as best they could.

Scholars estimate that there were between 30,000 and 40,000 Jewish Partisans who fought against the Nazis in the forest of Europe.[26]

I have shared just a few of the countless acts of resistance during the Holocaust. I want to turn now to liberation. What does it mean to be liberated from the Holocaust? When a person suffers severe trauma, liberation is a reality but not a panacea. The Allied forces liberated prisoners from concentration camps, forced labor camps and ghettos. Governments and NGO’s provided assistance for years after World War II. All of this was necessary and important for the survival of Holocaust refugees. But no amount of effort frees the survivors from the scars of war, hiding, fighting, humiliation and torture.

Many Holocaust survivors have lived rich and full lives after the Holocaust. Many made a good living and many engaged in the holy work of helping to make the world a better place. On the other hand, many Holocaust survivors have been limited in what they can accomplish because of their previous suffering or because of the hand that life has dealt them both before and after the Holocaust.

The German government has paid war reparations to Jews, to Roma and Sinti and to others who were victims of Holocaust atrocities. Even now, law firms in the United States, Europe and Israel continue to argue in the German courts for the rights of Holocaust survivors, and the German Supreme Court has issued decisions in the past few years allowing millions of Deutch Mark in additional reparations for new populations of survivors who were not previously eligible.

It is sixty-eight years since the end of Holocaust, so the youngest survivors are at least sixty-eight years old. Sadly, tragically, almost twenty-five percent of Holocaust survivors in Europe and North America are living at or under the poverty line. In Israel, the situation is even more dire, with nearly thirty-five percent of Holocaust survivors living at or near the poverty line.

The Holocaust Survivors Justice Network based in Los Angeles continues to recruit attorneys and paralegals from all over the United States who are willing to donate a few hours or many hours of their time to help Holocaust survivors apply for the new funds that are now available. If you would like to make a donation toward future litigation on behalf of Holocaust survivors and their families, or if you are an attorney or paralegal and wish to volunteer to help survivors apply for newly available reparations, please contact Bet Tzedek at  or 323-939-0506.

In conclusion, I want to share a teaching and a prayer. The teaching comes Professor Yehuda Bauer, former Director of the International Institute (on the Holocaust) at Yad VaShem in Jerusalem. In 1998, Professor Bauer was invited to address the full Bundestag, which is the German House of Representatives, together with the President of Germany and the German Chancellor. During his talk, Professor Bauer spoke of the Ten Commandments and recommended that three commandments be considered as possible additions to the traditional ten:

Commandment "Number Eleven - You, your children and your children's children shall never become perpetrators;"

Commandment “Number Twelve - You, your children and your children's children shall never never allow yourselves to become victims"; and

Commandment “Number Thirteen - You, your children and your children's children shall never, but never, be passive onlookers to mass murder, genocide, or … a Holocaust-like tragedy."

For those all over the world who have suffered and endured torture and lost their lives, in the name of ethnic cleansing, in the name of scape goating, in the name of “I have the power and you do not,” may their memories all be a blessing, together with the memory of the six million Jews and six million others whose lives were lost during one of humanity’s darkest hours.

For those who survived the Holocaust, and passed from this world after the Holocaust, may they always be remembered, together with their stories and their courage.

And for those Holocaust survivors who continue to be among us, those survivors who are sitting among us today, those who are members of our families and our communities, may their lives be full of blessing and may we be blessed to know them, and to remember them, and their stories, and their courage, and all that they are able to share of what they have endured.

And let us say, Amen.

[1] “Adolf Hitler is Named Chancellor of Germany,” <>

[2] “The Reichstag Fire,” Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum  <>

[3] “Stage 1: 1933 - 1939: Policies of Identification, Definition, Economic Discrimination and Emigration,” Facing History, <>

[4] Michael Berenbaum, author, Arnold Kramer, editor of photographs, The World Must Know, The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Museum. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1933, p. 35. “Kristallnacht,” Jewish Virtual Library <>.

[5] “People and Events: Kristallnacht,” American Experience  <> See also “Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9-10, 1938,” Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

<> where it states that 7,500 Jewish commercial establishments were looted. It also states that 267 synagogues were destroyed. Regarding Herschel Grynspan, see also

Ron Roizen, “Herschel Grynzpan: The Fate of a Forgotten Assassin” <>

[6] “A Warm Kiss,” pp. 37-45

[7] “WWII,” Nordic Way Directory <>

[8] Rebecca Weiner, “The Jewish Virtual History Tour: Sweden,” Jewish Virtual Library <>

[9] “Regina Jonas: The First Woman Rabbi in the World,” <>

[10] “1922 Leo Baeck Elected President of Rabbi Association,” Facing History and Ourselves <>


[12] “Dr. Leo Baeck, Chief Rabbi of Germany, Deport to Terezin Fortress,” JTA News Archive, March 26, 1943 <>

[13] Chmielnik was a village in the Polish Province of Kielc. At the beginning of World War II, Chmielnik had approximately 12,500 residence of which 10,000 were Jews. “Chmielnik,” Jewish Virtual Library “>

[14] “Wannsee Conference and the ‘Final Solution,’” Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum <>

[15] Estimates of the Jewish death toll at the Treblinka Death Camp ranged from 870,000 to 925,000. Some estimates are closer to 800,000.,













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